**22.5****
****Iteratively Reweighted
Least Squares** (.NET, C#, CSharp, VB, Visual Basic, F#)

Iteratively reweighted least
squares (IRLS) is an iterative minimization technique in which each step
involves solving a standard weighted least squares (Section 22.4). New weights are computed at each
iteration by applying a *weighting function*
to the current residuals. The process terminates when either a specified
*convergence function* returns true—typically when either the residuals
or the solution are unchanged on successive iterations—or when
a specified maximum number of iterations is reached.

**NMath**
provides class **DoubleIterativelyReweightedLeastSq**
for solving IRLS problems. The default weighting function is a bisquare
weighting function, and the default convergence function returns true when the solutions do not change, within
tolerance, on successive iterations. For instance:

Code Example – C# iteratively reweighted least squares

var irls = new DoubleIterativelyReweightedLeastSq();

Code Example – VB iteratively reweighted least squares

Dim IRLS As New DoubleIterativelyReweightedLeastSq()

Additional constructors enable you to specify the tolerance, the maximum number of iterations, and a weighting function (see below). Properties Tolerance, MaxIterations, and WeightsFunction are also provided for modifying these values post-construction.

The Solve() method solves
the least squares problem for *x* using the IRLS method:

Code Example – C# iteratively reweighted least squares

DoubleVector x = irls.Solve( A, y );

Code Example – VB iteratively reweighted least squares

Dim X As DoubleVector = IRLS.Solve(A, Y)

Property Residuals gets the residual vector from the most recent computation. Iterations gets the number of iterations performed. For instance:

Code Example – C# iteratively reweighted least squares

if ( irls.MaxIterationsMet ) { Console.WriteLine( "The algorithm failed to converge in {0} iterations.", irls.MaxIterations ); } else { Console.WriteLine( "Algorithm converged in {0} iterations.", irls.Iterations ); }

Code Example – VB iteratively reweighted least squares

If IRLS.MaxIterationsMet Then Console.WriteLine( "The algorithm failed to converge in {0} iterations.", IRLS.MaxIterations) Else Console.WriteLine( "Algorithm converged in {0} iterations.", IRLS.Iterations) End If

The convergence function is called at the end of each iteration. If the function returns true, the algorithm is terminated; otherwise, iteration continues.

Convergence functions are specified as instances of delegate DoubleIterativelyReweightedLeastSq.ToleranceMetFunction:

Code Example – C# iteratively reweighted least squares

public delegate bool ToleranceMetFunction( double tolerance, DoubleVector lastSolution, DoubleVector currentSolution, DoubleVector lastResiduals, DoubleVector currentResiduals);

Code Example – VB iteratively reweighted least squares

Delegate Function ToleranceMetFunction( Tolerance As Double, LastSolution As DoubleVector, CurrentSolution As DoubleVector, LastResiduals As DoubleVector, CurrentResiduals As DoubleVector) As Boolean

For example, this code encapsulates the user-defined function MyFunction as a DoubleIterativelyReweightedLeastSq.ToleranceMetFunction delegate:

Code Example – C# iteratively reweighted least squares

public static bool MyFunction( double tolerance, DoubleVector lastSolution, DoubleVector currentSolution, DoubleVector lastResiduals, DoubleVector currentResiduals ) { double a = NMathFunctions.MaxAbsValue( currentResiduals - lastResiduals ); double b = NMathFunctions.MaxAbsValue( currentResiduals ); return ( a/b ) < tolerance; } public static DoubleIterativelyReweightedLeastSq.ToleranceMetFunction residualsUnchanged = new DoubleIterativelyReweightedLeastSq.ToleranceMetFunction( MyFunction );

Code Example – VB iteratively reweighted least squares

public Shared Function MyFunction( Tolerance As Double, , LastSolution As DoubleVector, CurrentSolution As DoubleVector, LastResiduals As DoubleVector, CurrentResiduals As DoubleVector) As Boolean Dim A As Double = NMathFunctions.MaxAbsValue(CurrentResiduals - LastResiduals) Dim B As Double = NMathFunctions.MaxAbsValue(CurrentResiduals) Return (A / B) < Tolerance End Function

Property ConvergenceFunction
can be used to get and set the convergence function on a **DoubleIterativelyReweightedLeastSq** instance:

Code Example – C# iteratively reweighted least squares

irls.ConvergenceFunction = residualsUnchanged;

Code Example – VB iteratively reweighted least squares

IRLS.ConvergenceFunction = ResidualsUnchanged

**NMath**
provides a selection of least squares weighting functions. Typical
weighting functions used in IRLS are a function of the adjusted residuals
from the previous iteration. Abstract base class **DoubleLeastSqWeightingFunction**
provides method AdjustedResiduals() for
calculating the adjusted residuals according to the following formula:

where

● *r'* is the adjusted residuals.

● *r* is the actual residuals.

● *t* is a *tuning constant
*by which the residuals are divided before computing weights.
Decreasing the tuning constant increases the downweight assigned to large
residuals, and increasing the tuning constant decreases the downweight
assigned to large residuals.

● *h* is the vector of leverage values that
adjust the residuals by downweighting high-leverage data points, which
have a large effect on the least squares fit. The leverage values are
the main diagonal of the *hat* matrix

● *s* is an estimate of the standard deviation
of the error term given by

where MAD is the median absolute deviation of the residuals from their median. The constant 0.6745 makes the estimate unbiased for the normal distribution.

**DoubleLeastSqWeightingFunction**
also implements the **IDoubleLeastSqWeightingFunction**
interface, which provides methods Initialize()
for performing any needed initialization given the matrix *A*, and GetWeights()
for computing weights from a given vector of residuals.

Two concrete implementations of **DoubleLeastSqWeightingFunction**
are provided:

● **DoubleBisquareWeightingFunction**
applies the *bisquare* weighting formula
to a set of adjusted residuals:

where *r* is
the adjusted residuals computed by the AdjustedResidual()
function on the base class **DoubleLeastSqWeightingFunction**.

● **DoubleFairWeightingFunction**
applies the *fair weighting* formula
to a set of adjusted residuals:

where *r* is
the adjusted residuals computed by the AdjustedResidual()
function on the base class **DoubleLeastSqWeightingFunction**.

The default weighting function used is the bisquare
weighting function. This code constructs a **DoubleIterativelyReweightedLeastSq**
instance using the fair weighting function:

Code Example – C# iteratively reweighted least squares

var weightingFunction = new DoubleFairWeightingFunction(); var irls = new DoubleIterativelyReweightedLeastSq( weightingFunction );

Code Example – VB iteratively reweighted least squares

Dim WeightingFunction As IDoubleLeastSqWeightingFunction = New DoubleFairWeightingFunction() Dim IRLS As New DoubleIterativelyReweightedLeastSq(WeightingFunction)

The weighting function can also be changed on an existing
**DoubleIterativelyReweightedLeastSq**
object using the WeightsFunction property:

Code Example – C# iteratively reweighted least squares

irls.WeightsFunction = new DoubleFairWeightingFunction();

Code Example – VB iteratively reweighted least squares

IRLS.WeightsFunction = New DoubleFairWeightingFunction()